An introduction to biotechnology the use of biological information mainly dna

An introduction to biotechnology the use of biological information mainly dna

Transgenic Plants Manipulating the DNA of plants or creating genetically modified organisms called GMOs has helped to create desirable traits, such as disease resistance, herbicide and pesticide resistance, better nutritional value, and better shelf-life. White biotechnology tends to consume less in resources than traditional processes used to produce industrial goods. RNA analysis is performed to study gene expression patterns in cells. Therapeutic cloning, the cloning of human embryos as a source of embryonic stem cells, has been attempted in order to produce cells that can be used to treat detrimental diseases or defects. It is, therefore, the study of the relationship between pharmaceuticals and genetics. Many DNA-binding domains must recognize specific DNA sequences, such as DBDs of transcription factors that activate specific genes, or those of enzymes that modify DNA at specific sites, like restriction enzymes and telomerase. Gene therapy is a genetic engineering technique used to cure disease. The examples below serve as a finite set of future technologies that represent and illustrate each of the four categories. These tailor-made drugs promise not only to maximize therapeutic effects, but also to decrease damage to nearby healthy cells. Such modifications include methylation, citrullination, acetylation, phosphorylation, SUMOylation, ubiquitination, and ADP-ribosylation. DNA has two complementary strands linked by hydrogen bonds between the paired bases. Graphical Abstract Open in a separate window Introduction The template-directed enzymatic synthesis of DNA and RNA makes them unique among all materials and allows them to mediate the heritable storage and retrieval of biological information.

Modern biotechnology can be used to manufacture existing drugs more easily and cheaply. The additional domains often regulate the activity of the DNA-binding domain.

Introduction to biotechnology ppt

As crops and fields became increasingly large and difficult to maintain, it was discovered that specific organisms and their by-products could effectively fertilize , restore nitrogen , and control pests. Rapid increase in industrialization has soared up the environmental pollution and industrial wastes are directly allowed to mix with water, which has affected aquatic marines and, indirectly, human-beings. It is not new, but technical enhancements continue to increase the speed, ease, and accuracy with which larger and larger sequences can be generated chemically. This affects their function of gene regulation. Since the discovery of the structure of DNA in , the biotechnology field has grown rapidly through both academic research and private companies. Proteins that are expressed from recombinant DNA molecules are called recombinant proteins. The primary applications of this technology are in medicine production of vaccines and antibiotics and agriculture genetic modification of crops, such as to increase yields. This section needs to be updated. The zygote nucleus contains the genetic information to produce a new individual. The success rate of reproductive cloning at the time was very low. Therapeutic cloning, the cloning of human embryos as a source of embryonic stem cells, has been attempted in order to produce cells that can be used to treat detrimental diseases or defects. Recombinant DNA technology is playing a vital role in improving health conditions by developing new vaccines and pharmaceuticals. These shared characteristics are based on common purposes, common conceptual underpinnings, and common technical enabling platforms. For each example the following issues are addressed: the purpose of the technology, its current state of the art, and future applications.

Genes cloned from the influenza virus have been used to combat the constantly-changing strains of this virus. Their impact s may be beneficial or detrimental depending on how these tools and technologies are applied.

introduction to biotechnology notes

Fold Group. It is not new, but technical enhancements continue to increase the speed, ease, and accuracy with which larger and larger sequences can be generated chemically.

introduction to biotechnology pdf

Enzymes such as proteases that break down proteins inactivate macromolecules, and ribonucleases RNAses that break down RNA. Gel electrophoresis separates the nucleic acid fragments according to their size.

DNA synthesis technology could be used as an alternative method for producing high-value compounds.

introduction to biotechnology worksheet
Rated 10/10 based on 108 review
Download
Role of Recombinant DNA Technology to Improve Life